Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a congenital (present at birth) heart defect in which the left coronary artery arises abnormally from the pulmonary artery. Normally, the left and right coronary arteries arise from the aorta and supply blood with oxygen to the heart.
What causes anomalous coronary artery?
What causes an ACA in a child? Most congenital heart problems have no known cause. An ACA may happen with other congenital heart problems. For instance, it may occur with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF).
How rare is anomalous left coronary artery?
ALCAPA is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly occurring at an incidence of 1 in 300 000 live births or 0.25 to 0.5% of all congenital heart disease.
How serious is anomalous coronary artery?
Getting treatment for a blocked anomalous coronary artery can prevent serious problems. These include lack of blood to the heart muscle (ischemia), irregular heart rhythms, and sudden cardiac death. Some people with an anomalous coronary artery can be treated with medicines and lifestyle changes.
What is anomalous left coronary artery?
Anomalous left coronary artery (ALCA) occurs when the left coronary artery, which carries blood to the heart, is connected to the pulmonary artery instead of the aorta. It is a rare problem, comprising less than 1% of all congenital heart defects in children.
How is anomalous coronary artery diagnosed?
Diagnosing Anomalous Coronary Artery (ACA)
- Chest X-ray.
- Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
- Echocardiogram (echo)
- Cardiac catheterization.
- Computed tomography angiography (CTA)
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
- Nuclear imaging.
Is anomalous coronary artery hereditary?
The odds of this occurring are significantly greater than what would be expected by chance. All identified by screening were asymptomatic and had anomalous right coronary artery despite 2 of the 5 index cases having anomalous left coronary artery. Conclusions: It is possible that there is a genetic link for AAOCA.
Is the pulmonary artery considered a coronary artery?
Normally, the left and right coronary arteries arise from the aorta and supply blood with oxygen to the heart. In children with ALCAPA, the left coronary artery arises from the pulmonary artery and carries blood without oxygen to the left side of the heart.
What is the difference between pulmonary artery and coronary artery?
Coronary artery refers to either of the two arteries that originate in the aorta and supply blood to the muscular tissue of heart. Pulmonary artery, on the other hand, is one of two arteries that carry venous blood from the heart to the lungs.
What is anomalous origin of the right coronary artery?
Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery is a rare congenital anomaly that was 1st described in 1948 by White and Edwards. The prevalence of this anomaly in the white population, as determined from autopsy studies, is 0.026%. The prevalence of this anomaly in other populations, however, is significantly higher.
How serious is right coronary artery blockage?
A buildup of plaque can narrow these arteries, decreasing blood flow to your heart. Eventually, the reduced blood flow may cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or other coronary artery disease signs and symptoms. A complete blockage can cause a heart attack.
Which artery is the widow maker?
The widow-maker is a massive heart attack that occurs when the left anterior descending artery (LAD) is totally or almost completely blocked. The critical blockage in the artery stops, usually a blood clot, stops all the blood flow to the left side of the heart, causing the heart to stop beating normally.
What is the most common coronary artery anomaly?
The origin of the Cx artery from the right coronary artery (RCA) or RSV was the most common anomaly, present in 28 of 48 patients (58.3%), with an angiographic prevalence of 0.17% (Figure 1).
What is the purpose of a coronary bypass surgery?
Your doctor uses coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) to treat a blockage or narrowing of one or more of the coronary arteries to restore the blood supply to your heart muscle. Symptoms of coronary artery disease may include: Chest pain.
Is Alcapa hereditary?
ALCAPA is not considered an inheritable congenital cardiac defect. No risk factors for the occurrence of ALCAPA in any individual family are known, and ALCAPA is not associated with any syndromes or noncardiac conditions.
Where does coronary circulation begin?
Coronary arteries supply blood to the myocardium and other components of the heart. Two coronary arteries originate from the left side of the heart at the beginning (root) left ventricle. There are three aortic sinuses (dilations) in the wall of the aorta just superior to the aortic semilunar valve.