Patients with an increased endometrial thickness should undergo more invasive testing, that is, office endometrial sampling, hysteroscopy or dilation and curettage (D&C), to exclude endometrial pathology. D&C was traditionally the method of choice for investigating patients with postmenopausal bleeding.
Which diagnostic test is indicated for postmenopausal bleeding?
Algorithm. An algorithm for diagnosing postmenopausal bleeding is presented in Figure 1. Endometrial biopsy is the first choice because of its convenience and lower cost.
How do you assess post menopausal bleeding?
The primary evaluation of postmenopausal women who present with abnormal uterine bleeding includes a medical history and a pelvic examination. Investigative studies, such as a uterine biopsy, ultrasound, hysteroscopy or dilation and curettage, may be required. Treatment will depend on the cause determined.
What is the most common cause of postmenopausal bleeding?
In most cases, postmenopausal bleeding is caused by issues such as endometrial atrophy (a thinning of the uterine lining), vaginal atrophy, fibroids, or endometrial polyps. The bleeding could also be a sign of endometrial cancer—a malignancy of the uterine lining, but only in a small number of cases.
What type of cancer is associated with postmenopausal bleeding?
Cancer: Postmenopausal bleeding is a common symptom of endometrial cancer, but it also can be caused by cervical and vulvar cancer. Endometrial atrophy: The tissue that lines the uterus can become very thin after menopause. As the lining thins, bleeding may occur.
Does postmenopausal bleeding stop on it’s own?
RETURN OF BLEEDING — IS THIS NORMAL? During menopausal years, women may experience a return of vaginal bleeding. They may spot for a day or a week, and then bleeding may go away. When bleeding does stop, it’s natural not to think about it again.
Can stress cause post menopausal bleeding?
There are several symptoms that can occur due to atrophic vaginitis and abnormal bleeding is one. Stress – both physical and mental stress can impact whether or not bleeding after menopause happens just like it can impact a normal menstrual cycle.
Can you have a period after menopause?
Menopause is the time after you have your last period. Because your final periods can be irregular, menopause is confirmed 12 months after your last period. Bleeding or spotting after this point is called postmenopausal bleeding (PMB). Postmenopausal bleeding needs to be checked out by a doctor.
Can periods restart after menopause?
Bleeding after menopause or “postmenopausal bleeding” (“PMB”) can be defined as the resumption of vaginal bleeding at least 6 months after a woman experiences her last menstrual period.
Can steroid injections cause postmenopausal bleeding?
Conclusions: Corticosteroid injection is associated with increased abnormal vaginal bleeding among postmenopausal women.
What is the treatment for postmenopausal bleeding?
Treatment for postmenopausal bleeding
|Endometrial hyperplasia||depending on the type of hyperplasia, you may be offered no treatment, hormone medicine (tablets or an intrauterine system, IUS) or a total hysterectomy (surgery to remove your uterus, cervix and ovaries)|
What medications can cause postmenopausal bleeding?
Hormone medications, such as tamoxifen, may also cause postmenopausal bleeding as a side effect. Many women will experience breakthrough bleeding as a result of taking hormone replacement therapy in the first 6 months.
Is it normal to bleed years after menopause?
Bleeding after menopause is not normal, so take it seriously. Go directly to your ob-gyn. Polyps also can cause vaginal bleeding. If your ob-gyn discovers these benign (noncancerous) growths in your uterus or on your cervix, you might need surgery to remove them.
What are the chances that postmenopausal bleeding is cancer?
Overall, the analysis showed that, consistent with what had been seen in earlier studies, 90% of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer had experienced postmenopausal bleeding.
Is Bleeding 2 years after menopause normal?
Menopause is the end of menstruation. In clinical terms, you reach menopause when you haven’t had a period for 12 months. Vaginal bleeding after menopause isn’t normal and should be evaluated by your doctor.
What were your first signs of endometrial cancer?
Early warning signs of endometrial cancer can include:
- Bloody, smelly or watery vaginal discharge.
- Bleeding between periods (spotting)
- Unusually heavy periods.
- Vaginal bleeding after menopause.
- Discomfort or pain in the abdomen.
- Difficulty or pain urinating.
- Unexplained weight loss.
- Pain during intercourse.